Background

Overview:
1) The Internet and Human Rights (English)
2) Internet und Menschenrechte (German)

P1: Internet and Human Rights in Foreign Policy: Where do we stand and where are we going
1) Westerwelle, Guido. 2011. “Die Freiheit im Netz.” Frankfurter Rundschau. http://www.fr-online.de/meinung/gastbeitrag-von-guido-westerwelle-die-freiheit-im-netz,1472602,8496970.html
2) La Rue, Frank, Dunja Mijatovic, Catalina Botero Marino, and Faith Pansy Tlakula. 2011. Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and the Internetwww.osce.org/fom/78309
3) Ganesan, Arvind. 2010. “US: A Big Step Toward Online Freedom | Human Rights Watch.” Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/news/2010/01/22/opinion-big-step-toward-online-freedom

1a: Civil society strategies for Internet Freedom: Answers from HR Defenders, Activists and Bloggers
1) Reporters Without Borders. 2012. “INTERNET ENEMIES REPORT 2012.” Reporters Without Borders.  http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rapport-internet2012_ang.pdf
2) Ben Gharbia, Sami. 2010. “Gatecrashing ‘netroots’ activism.” Al Jazeera Onlinehttp://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2010/09/201092294450124691.html
3) Human Rights Watch. 2012. “Vietnam: Clinton Should Spotlight Internet Freedom.” Human Rights Watch.   http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/07/09/vietnam-clinton-should-spotlight-internet-freedom

1b: Private Internet Regulation, Foreign Policy and Human Rights
1) York, Jillian C. 2010. “Policing Content in the Quasi-Public Sphere.” In Boston, MA: Open Net Initiative Bulletin. Berkman Center. Harvard University.  http://opennet.net/policing-content-quasi-public-sphere
2) Reporters Without Borders. 2011. “The new media: Between revolution and repression – Net solidarity takes on censorship.”  http://en.rsf.org/the-new-media-between-revolution-11-03-2011,39764.html
3) Karr, Timothy, and Clothilde Le Coz. 2011. “Corporations and the Arab Net Crackdown.” Foreign Policy in Focushttp://www.fpif.org/articles/corporations_and_the_arab_net_crackdown

2a: Human Rights, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights:
 finding an appropriate balance
1) Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs, Council of Europe (eds.). 2009. Copyright and Human Rights. Report prepared by the Group of Specialists on Human Rights in the Information Society (MC-S-IS) http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/media/doc/H-Inf(2009)12_en.pdf
2) Horner, Lisa; Hawtin, Dixie and Puddephatt, Andrew. 2010. Information and Communication Technologies and Human Rights, Chapter 4 Access to Knowledge, Culture and Ideas: The Danger of Excessive Copyright Protection, p. 53. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=31731
3) Chilling Effects Clearinghouse (eds.): Chilling Effects Weather Reports. Available at: http://www.chillingeffects.org/weather.cgi

2b: The potential of new technologies for democracy support
1) Ross, Alec. 2010. “Internet Freedom: Historic Roots and the Road Forward.” SAIS Review 30(2): 3–15. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sais_review/v030/30.2.ross.html
2) Böhnke, Olaf. 2012. Europe’s Digital Diplomacy: Possible Impacts of an EU Online Democracy Promotion Strategy. Berlin, Germany. 2012-09-11_ECFR_Digital-Foreign-Policy_Boehnke_engl_FINAL

3a: Human Rights and Internet Governance: Institutional Players and the Multi-Stakeholder Approach
1) Tunis Commitment & Tunis Agenda of the Information Society, November 2005 http://www.itu.int/wsis/index.html
2) Bertrand de la Chapelle, Multistakeholder Governance Principles and the Challenges of Innovative Political Paradigm, in: Wolfgang Kleinwächter (ed.), MIND 2: Internet Policy Making, Berlin 2011, http://www.collaboratory.de/w/MIND_2_-_Internet_Policy_Making
3) Wolfgang Kleinwächter, A Constiutional Moment in the History of the Internet: How Soft Law is Used to Regulate Cyberspace, in: juridikum: Zeitschrift für Kritik, Recht und Gesellschaft, No. 4, 2011, Wien, http://www.juridikum.at/archiv/juridikum-42011/

3b: Censorship and Surveillance Technology: Mitigating harm and promoting Human Rights
1) King, Eric. 2011. “Big Brother Inc.” Privacy International. https://www.privacyinternational.org/projects/big-brother-inc
2) Schaake, Marietje. 2012. “Discussion paper on my report on Digital Freedoms in EU foreign policy – share your thoughts!” http://www.marietjeschaake.eu/2012/06/discussion-paper-on-my-report-on-digital-freedoms-in-eu-foreign-policy-share-your-thoughts
3) Wagner, Ben. 2012. After the Arab Spring: New Paths for Human Rights and the Internet in European Foreign Policy. European Union. Brussels, Belgium. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=75431

P2: Strengthening Human Rights on the Internet: What are the appropriate methods?
1) UN Human Rights Council Resolution on Internet Freedom. 2012. http://geneva.usmission.gov/2012/07/05/internet-resolution/
2) Council of Europe Internet Governance Principles. 2011. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1835773
3) OECD Internet Policy Making Principles. 2011. http://www.oecd.org/internet/innovation/48289796.pdf